Pererva E.V. Nomadic Population of the Lower Volga Region Second Half 13th – 14th Centuries According to the Results of Paleopathological Research

 
Evgeniy V. Pererva, Candidate of Sciences (History), Associate Professor, Department of History and International Relations, Volgograd State University, Prosp. Universitetsky, 100, 400062 Volgograd, Russian Federation
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Abstract. The paper presents the results of a study of paleopathological, age and sex features of nomads of the second half 13th–14th centuries from kurgan burials from the territory of the Lower Volga region. The skeletal material for the study is presented by skulls and bones of 81 postcranial skeleton human remains. Research methodology of studying paleoanthropological material includes examination of the series and skull using the standard assessment program of palepathological conditions of the bones of the postcranial skeleton developed by A.P. Buzhilova and an shortened program for assessing paleodemgraphic indicators. As a result of the study, it has been identified that a small number of children in burials and a high mortality of women at a young age was typical for the nomads of the 13th–14th centuries from the Lower Volga region. The early life stages were the most difficult for the nomads as evidenced by frequent occurrence in children and adults of stress markers in the form of “cribra orbitalia”, enamel hypoplasia, bones porosity of the vault and skull facial area. This fact proves that environmental and social factors influenced quality, and arguably life expectancy of the adult population. The diet of the population of 13th–14th centuries from the Lower Volga region included mostly meat and dairy products. The incidence assessment of injuries and of physical activity signs indicates that the nomads of the Golden Horde time led a peaceful lifestyle engaging in traditional forms of economic practices.
Key words: Golden Horde, urban population, gender and age features, physiological stress markers, adaptation, paleopathological conditions.
Citation. Pererva E.V., 2022. Kochevoe naselenie Nizhnego Povolzh’ya vtoroy poloviny XIII – XIV v. po rezul’tatam paleopatologicheskogo issledovaniya [Nomadic Population of the Lower Volga Region Second Half 13th – 14th Centuries According to the Results of Paleopathological Research]. Nizhnevolzhskiy Arkheologicheskiy Vestnik [The Lower Volga Archaeological Bulletin], vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 208-243. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/nav.jvolsu.2022.1.11
 
Nomadic Population of the Lower Volga Region Second Half 13th – 14th Centuries According to the Results of Paleopathological Research by Pererva E.V. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
 
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