Dremov I.I., Kruglov E.V. Iron Cones in the Burials of Ulus Jochi: Aspects of Ethnocultural Identification

 
Igor I. Dremov, Candidate of Sciences (History), Archaeologist, Regional Center for Ecology, Local Studies and Tourism, Novouzenskaya St, 156, 410054 Saratov, Russian Federation
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Evgeniy V. Kruglov, Secretary, Volgograd Regional Branch of the All-Russian Society for Protection of Monuments of History and Culture, Prosp. Lenina, 86, Office 502, 400005 Volgograd, Russian Federation
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Abstract. Cone-shaped objects, rolled from iron and bronze sheets, are found in the Golden Horde burials of the late 13th – early 15th centuries. The authors collected information on more than 100 burials with iron and bronze cones located in the territory of Ulus Jochi. This article is examines material from 78 iron cone burials. Specific features of the topographic location of these complexes, use of stones in rituals, construction of log cabins around graves is similar to archaeological and ethnographic monuments of Central Asia associated with ethnic Mongols. As a rule, human remains buried in graves are oriented north or northeast with their heads, which is also a feature of the Mongol funeral rite. Accompaniment of the burial with whole or stuffed horses remains in the complexes with cones is not common, but these features are also known in Mongolian cemeteries in Central Asia. The placement of a sheep tibia at the head of the buried occasionally in vertical position is considered a main ethnic feature of the Mongol culture. In general, the sample of the Ulus Jochi burials, united by the iron cones presence in the burial inventory, is characterized by an increased concentration of rather specific ritual signs typical of the Mongols of Central Asia. This allows us to conclude that the considered monuments belong to the same ethnocultural group of population. Moreover, the available anthropological data testify to the Central Asian (Mongolian) origin of the representatives of this group of nomads of Ulus Jochi Burials with iron cones. The authors observe manifestations of pagan shamanic and Buddhist rituals judging by the dominant features of funeral rituals left by the bearers of Mongolian ethnic and cultural traditions.
Key words: cones, funeral rite, nomads, Ulus Jochi, graves structures, sheep bones, northern orientation, Mongols.
Citation. Dremov I.I., Kruglov E.V., 2021. Zheleznye konusy v pogrebeniyah Ulusa Dzhuchi: aspekty etnokul’turnoy prinadlezhnosti [Iron Cones in the Burials of Ulus Jochi: Aspects of Ethnocultural Identification]. Nizhnevolzhskiy Arkheologicheskiy Vestnik [The Lower Volga Archaeological Bulletin], vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 149-168. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/nav.jvolsu.2021.2.7
 
Iron Cones in the Burials of Ulus Jochi: Aspects of Ethnocultural Identification by Dremov I.I., Kruglov E.V. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
 
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