Morgunova N.L., Faizullin A.A. New Data About the Initiate Time of the Pre-Ural (Kargaly) Mining and Metallurgical Center

 
Nina L. Morgunova, Doctor of Science (History), Professor, Leading Researcher, Archaeological Laboratory, Orenburg State Pedagogical University, Sovetskaya St, 19, 460014 Orenburg, Russian Federation
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Airat A. Faizullin, Candidate of Science (History), Junior Researcher, Archaeological Laboratory, Orenburg State Pedagogical University, Sovetskaya St, 19, 460014 Orenburg, Russian Federation
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Abstract. The article summarizes the data on the initial stage of metal production in the Southern Urals of the Bronze Age. Lots of Yamnaya culture burial mounds with copper items inside were excavated near the Kargaly deposit in the Orenburg oblast. The variety and originality of tools forms indicate the independent nature of the Ural metallurgy in the early Bronze Age. The authors present new data that allows us to reconstruct the process of metal production at the Repin (early) stage of the Yamnaya culture and explain the beginning of this process by the development of the Kargaly copper ore deposit. Excavations of the Turganik settlement were carried out. Cultural layer 5 of the early Bronze Age is dated to 3800–3360 cal BC. It is characterized by ceramics and other artefacts of the Repin type. Fragments of Kargaly copper ore, slags and copper tools (knife, awls) were found in the layer. The traceological analysis of about approximately 100 items made of stone and animal bones was performed. 41 of them are related to metallurgy and metalworking. They represent tools of all metallurgical production stages, starting from metal extraction from ore to the processing of the finished copper product. Functional groups of products such as ore mortar, ore crushing hammers, casting molds, forging hammers, anvils, edges leveling tools, sharpening stones, and others have been identified. Stone artifacts from the burials were also studied, including ore crushing and forging hammers. No mining tools were found at the settlement. It is concluded that the ore was extracted and processed at the Kargaly deposit, located 70 km to the east, and then delivered to the settlement as an enriched concentrate. The settlement was seasonal. Metallurgical activity here took its place in the summer, since the main type of economic activity was nomadic pastoralism.
Key words: metallurgy and metalworking, technical analysis, Yamnaya culture, Kargaly deposit, Southern Urals.
Citation. Morgunova N.L., Faizullin A.A., 2021. Novye dannye o nachale funktsionirovaniya Priural’skogo (Kargalinskogo) gorno-metallurgicheskogo tsentra [New Data About the Initiate Time of the Pre-Ural (Kargaly) Mining and Metallurgical Center]. Nizhnevolzhskiy Arkheologicheskiy Vestnik [The Lower Volga Archaeological Bulletin], vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 5-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/nav.jvolsu.2021.1.1
 
New Data About the Initiate Time of the Pre-Ural (Kargaly) Mining and Metallurgical Center by Morgunova N.L., Faizullin A.A. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
 
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