Vostrikov S.S., Borodina V.V. The Problems of Physical and Chemical Research of Ceramics from Archaeological Sites of the Lower Don

 
Sergey S. Vostrikov, Candidate of Sciences (History), Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology and History of Culture, Don State Technical University, Gagarina Sq., 1, 344000 Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation
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Veronika V. Borodina, Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics), Associate Professor of Department of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and General Professional Disciplines, Sedov Water Transport Institute – Branch of Admiral Ushakov State Maritime University, Sedova St., 8, 344006 Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation
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Abstract. The present review paper analyzes the entire range of natural-science methods and techniques of archaeological ceramics research. Natural-science methods are aimed at the study of the chemical composition, various properties and features of the technology of ceramic products manufacture, which, in the case of archaeological ceramics, can solve problems that go far beyond material science, namely, to draw conclusions about the level of development, territorial and cultural relations of the person who produced this material. The whole set of natural-science methods used for the study of archaeological ceramics, is conventionally divided by us into the following main groups. The first group includes the methods for determining the age of ceramic finds, such as the method of radiocarbon dating and the method of thermoluminescent dating. The second group includes the methods for studying the physical properties of ceramics. This group includes water saturation study, petrographic method, mercury porometry, strength tests of ceramics depending on the nature of impurities, firing temperature and clay quality. The third group unites the methods for studying the microstructure of ceramic samples: optical and scanning electron microscopy, petrographic analysis. The methods for studying the sintering temperature of ancient ceramics are allocated in a separate fourth group. And the last, the fifth group unites the methods for determining the chemical and microelement composition of ceramics, of which the most promising are different options for spectral analysis, to identify the ceramic products of a particular pottery center or to identify the location of the sources of raw materials. The possibilities of each method and direction are investigated and practical recommendations for optimization of their application for solving specific problems related to the study of ceramics from the archaeological sites of the Lower Don are given.
Key words: archaeological ceramics, methods of natural sciences, chemical composition, microstructure, physical properties, technology, spectral analysis.
Citation. Vostrikov S.S., Borodina V.V., 2018. The Problems of Physical and Chemical Research of Ceramics from Archaeological Sites of the Lower Don. Тhe Lower Volga Archaeological Bulletin, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 70-81. (in Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/nav.jvolsu.2018.2.6
 
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